Pål Thonstad Sandvik, “Facing oligopoly and protectionism, The fate of small producers in the inter-war nickel industry”, Scandinavian Journal of History 2009; Volume 34.(4)

Abstract: ”

In the inter-war era international cartels and oligopolies dominated several industries. At the same time trade barriers were increasing. This article explores the fate of two small nickel producers, the Canadian company Falconbridge and the Norwegian Raffineringsverket. Falconbridge operated a nickel refinery in Norway from 1929 onwards. The article shows that small firms could act as ‘free riders’ in the nickel market provided that they had sufficient ore resources, were vertically integrated and had low marginal costs. The article also demonstrates that the Great Depression, widespread rise of protectionism and the move towards autarchy had surprisingly limited impact on the international nickel industry. Somewhat similar developments can be found in several industries. The article thus offers some new perspectives on the growth of the Norwegian exports of metallurgical products and thereby on Norwegian economic performance in the 1930s.”

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Full referanse: Pål Thonstad Sandvik, “Facing oligopoly and protectionism, The fate of small producers in the inter-war nickel industry”, Scandinavian Journal of History 2009; Volume 34.(4) s. 376-393

Rolv Petter Amdam “The internationalisation process theory and the internationalisation of Norwegian firms, 1945 to 1980”, Business History, Vol. 51, No. 3, 2009, 445-461

Abstract:

“According to the internationalisation process theory firms tend to invest and expand in countries with a short psychic distance to the home country. This paper discusses the usefulness of bringing this theory into business history by analysing the internationalisation of Norwegian firms before the 1980s. The empirical contribution of this paper is that it adds new knowledge to our understanding of the early internationalisation of Norwegians firms. The theoretical contribution is that the paper develops the discussion on the usefulness of bringing networks into the internationalisation process theory. Based on the Norwegian case, there seems to be a need for including personal networks as one dimension of the psychic distance concept, not only in the new economy but also in the old economy.”

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