Knut Sogner, “Innovation as Adaptation: The Digital Challenge in the Norwegian Fishing Industry, 1970-1985”, Business History Review, Vol. 83. No. 2, 2009

Abstract:

“The introduction of a sonar system for fisheries by the Norwegian firm Simrad had lasting effects on the industry, as the system was based on digital mastery that could be utilized for other products. Norwegian engineers with sonar experience were the driving force behind this breakthrough, demonstrating the relevance of theories of national agglomerations of competence. In one important, though unintended, outcome, internal failures forced the company to hire new people who adopted creative strategies to meet the competitive situation presented by Japan.”